U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (n.d.). Glossary. Retrieved March 9, 2022, from https://bjs.ojp.gov/glossary
Dumont, D. M., Brockmann, B., Dickman, S., Alexander, N., & Rich, J. D. (2012). Public health and the epidemic of incarceration. Annual Review of Public Health, 33, 325–339.
Council of Economic Advisers. (2016). Economic perspectives on incarceration and the criminal justice system. Executive Office of the President of the United States. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/documents/CEA%2BCriminal%2BJustice%2BReport.pdf
Kessler, D., & Levitt, S. D. (1999). Using sentence enhancements to distinguish between deterrence and incapacitation. Journal of Law and Economics, 42(1), 343–363.
Clear, T. R. (2008). The effects of high imprisonment rates on communities. Crime and Justice, 37(1), 97–132.
Freudenberg, N. (2002). Adverse effects of US jail and prison policies on the health and well-being of women of color. American Journal of Public Health, 92(12), 1895–1899.
The Pew Charitable Trusts. (2010). Collateral costs: Incarceration’s effect on economic mobility. The Pew Charitable Trusts.
Travis, J., Western, B., & Redburn, F. S. (2014). The growth of incarceration in the United States: Exploring causes and consequences. The National Academies Press.
Gramlich, J. (2019). The gap between the number of blacks and whites in prison is shrinking. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/04/30/shrinking-gap-between-number-of-blacks-and-whites-in-prison/
Nellis, A. (2020). Incarcerated women and girls. The Sentencing Project. https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/incarcerated-women-and-girls
Sampson, R. J., & Loeffler, C. (2010). Punishment’s place: The local concentration of mass incarceration. Daedalus, 139(3), 20–31.
Kubrin, C. E., & Stewart, E. (2006). Predicting who reoffends: The neglected role of neighborhood context in recidivism studies. Criminology, 44(1), 165–197.
Mears, D. P., Wang, X., Hay, C., & Bales, W. D. (2008). Social ecology and recidivism: Implications for prisoner reentry. Criminology, 46(2), 301–340.
Bronson, J., & Berzofsky, M. (2017). Indicators of Mental Health Problems Reported by Prisoners and Jail Inmates. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/imhprpji1112_sum.pdf
Binswanger, I. A., Krueger, P. M., & Steiner, J. F. (2009). Prevalence of chronic medical conditions among jail and prison inmates in the United States compared with the general population. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 63(11), 912–919.
Restum, Z. G. (2005). Public health implications of substandard correctional health care. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1689–1691.
Maruschak, L. M., & Beavers, R. (2009). HIV in prisons, 2007–08. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.
Spaulding, A. C., Seals, R. M., Page, M. J., Brzozowski, A. K., Rhodes, W., & Hammett, T. M. (2009). HIV/AIDS among inmates of and releasees from US correctional facilities, 2006: Declining share of epidemic but persistent public health opportunity. PLoS One, 4(11).
Covington, S. S. (2007). Women and the criminal justice system. Women’s Health Issues, 17(4), 180–182.
Braithwaite, R. L., Treadwell, H. M., & Arriola, K. R. J. (2008). Health disparities and incarcerated women: A population ignored. American Journal of Public Health, 98(Suppl 1), S173–S175.
Maruschak, L. M., & Beck, A. J. (2001). Medical problems of inmates, 1997. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Messina, N., & Grella, C. (2006). Childhood trauma and women’s health outcomes in a California prison population. American Journal of Public Health, 96(10), 1842–1848.
Loeb, S. J., & AbuDagga, A. (2006). Health-related research on older inmates: An integrative review. Research in Nursing & Health, 29(6), 556–565.
Gal, M. (2003). The physical and mental health of older offenders. Mental Health, 38(30.8), 17–22.
Aday, R. H. (1994). Golden years behind bars: Special programs and facilities for elderly inmates. Federal Probation, 58(2) 47–54.
Lemieux, C. M., Dyeson, T. B., & Castiglione, B. (2002). Revisiting the literature on prisoners who are older: Are we wiser? The Prison Journal, 82(4), 440–458.
Merianos, D. E., Marquart, J. W., Damphousse, K., & Hebert, J. L. (1997). From the outside in: Using public health data to make inferences about older inmates. Crime & Delinquency, 43(3), 298–313.
Stojkovic, S. (2007). Elderly prisoners: A growing and forgotten group within correctional systems vulnerable to elder abuse. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 19(3-4), 97–117.
Fazel, S., Hope, T., O’Donnell, I., & Jacoby, R. (2004). Unmet treatment needs of older prisoners: A primary care survey. Age and Ageing, 33(4), 396–398.
Travis, J., & Petersilia, J. (2001). Reentry reconsidered: A new look at an old question. NCCD News, 47(3), 291–313.
Murphey, D., & Cooper, P. M. (2015). Parents behind bars: What happens to their children? Child Trends.
Wildeman, C. (2014). Parental incarceration, child homelessness, and the invisible consequences of mass imprisonment. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 651(1), 74–96.
Geller, A., Cooper, C. E., Garfinkel, I., Schwartz-Soicher, O., & Mincy, R. B. (2012). Beyond absenteeism: Father incarceration and child development. Demography, 49(1), 49–76.
Freudenberg, N. (2001). Jails, prisons, and the health of urban populations: A review of the impact of the correctional system on community health. Journal of Urban Health, 78(2), 214–235. https://doi.org/10.1093/jurban/78.2.214
Awofeso, N. (2010). Prisons as social determinants of hepatitis C virus and tuberculosis infections. Public Health Reports, 125(Suppl 4), 25–33.
Langan, P. A., & Levin, D. J. (2002). Recidivism of prisoners released in 1994. Federal Sentencing Reporter, 15(1), 58–65.
Moore, L. D., & Elkavich, A. (2008). Who’s using and who’s doing time: Incarceration, the war on drugs, and public health. American Journal of Public Health, 98(5), 782–786.
Chin, G. J. (2011). Race, the war on drugs, and the collateral consequences of criminal conviction. Journal of Gender, Race & Justice, 6, 255–278.
McDaniel, M., Simms, M. C., Monson, W., & Fortuny, K. (2013). Imprisonment and disenfranchisement of disconnected low-income men. Urban Institute.
Chung, J. (2013). Felony disenfranchisement: A primer. The Sentencing Project.
Ranapurwala, S. I., Shanahan, M. E., Alexandridis, A. A., Proescholdbell, S. K., Naumann, R. B., & Edwards, D. (2018). Opioid overdose mortality among former North Carolina inmates: 2000–2015. American Journal of Public Health, 108(9), 1207–1213.
Pratt, D., Appleby, L., Webb, R., & Shaw, J. (2006). Suicide in recently released prisoners: A population-based cohort study. Lancet, 368(9530), 119–123.